Simulation of a Potential CO2 Storage in the West Paris Basin: Site Characterization and Assessment of the Long-Term Hydrodynamical and Geochemical Impacts Induced by the CO2 Injection
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Accepted: 15 June 2017
This article presents the preliminary results of a study carried out as part of a demonstration project of CO2 storage in the Paris Basin. This project funded by ADEME (French Environment and Energy Management Agency) and several industrial partners (TOTAL, ENGIE, EDF, Lafarge, Air Liquide, Vallourec) aimed to study the possibility to set up an experimental infrastructure of CO2 transport and storage. Regarding the storage, the objectives were: (1) to characterize the selected site by optimizing the number of wells in a CO2 injection case of 200 Mt over 50 years in the Trias, (2) to simulate over time the CO2 migration and the induced pressure field, and (3) to analyze the geochemical behavior of the rock over the long term (1,000 years). The preliminary site characterization study revealed that only the southern area of Keuper succeeds to satisfy this injection criterion using only four injectors. However, a complementary study based on a refined fluid flow model with additional secondary faults concluded that this zone presents the highest potential of CO2 injection but without reaching the objective of 200 Mt with a reasonable number of wells. The simulation of the base scenario, carried out before the model refinement, showed that the overpressure above 0.1 MPa covers an area of 51,869 km2 in the Chaunoy formation, 1,000 years after the end of the injection, which corresponds to the whole West Paris Basin, whereas the CO2 plume extension remains small (524 km2). This overpressure causes brine flows at the domain boundaries and a local overpressure in the studied oil fields. Regarding the preliminary risk analysis of this project, the geochemical effects induced by the CO2 injection were studied by simulating the fluid-rock interactions with a coupled geochemical and fluid flow model in a domain limited to the storage complex. A one-way coupling of two models based on two domains fitting into each other was developed using dynamic boundary conditions. This approach succeeded to improve the simulation results of the pressure field and the CO2 plume as well as the geochemical behavior of the rock. These ones showed that the CO2 plume tends to stabilize thanks to the carbonation in calcite and dawsonite and no significant porosity change appears over 1,050 years. The CO2 mass balance per trapping type gives a CO2 carbonation rate of about 78% at 1,050 years that seemed to be excessive compared to the simulation study of other storage sites. Thus, an additional work dealing with both the kinetic data base and the textural models would be necessary in order to reduce the uncertainty of the injected CO2 mineralization.
© A. Estublier et al., published by IFP Energies nouvelles, 2017
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