Open Access

Table 2

Various generations of biofuel with processing technology.

Generation Biomass used Processing methodology Generated fuel Ref.
1st Food crops, edible oil/animal fats Transesterification – Thermochemical processing Bioethanol, biodiesel. [16, 18]
2nd Waste cooking oil, rice/wheat straw, non-edible oils Pre-treatment – Chemical, biological, physical, fermentation and thermochemical processing Syngas, biobutanol, biodiesel. [23, 27]
3rd Algae and microorganisms Cultivation – Extraction – Fermentation – Thermochemical processing Methane, bioethanol, biobutanol, syngas, biodiesel. [33, 34, 39]
4th Algae and microorganisms Metabolic engineering of algae capable of absorbing biomass – Cultivating – Fermentation – Thermochemical processing Biodiesel, methane, biobutanol, bioethanol. [4547]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.