Open Access

Table 1

Advantages and disadvantages of various biodiesel generations [12].

Biodiesel generation Advantages Disadvantages
1st generation biodiesel
  1. Low emission of greenhouse gas.

  2. Easy and low-cost technology for conversion.

  1. Yield is inadequate to meet the demand.

  2. Causes food shortage.

  3. High land footprint.

2nd generation biodiesel
  1. Using food waste as a feedstock.

  2. Use of non-agricultural land to grow a limited amount of crops.

  1. Costly pre-treatment.

  2. Sophisticated technology is used to transform biomass into fuel.

3rd generation biodiesel
  1. Simple to grow algae.

  2. No competition for the use of food crops: wastewater, seawater can be used.

  1. More resources usage for algae cultivation.

  2. Low lipid level or biomass accumulation in algae.

4th generation biodiesel
  1. High biomass and production yield.

  2. More capability to eliminate CO2.

  1. The cost of the bio-reactor is higher.

  2. At the early stage of research, the high investment needed.

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