Dossier: Thermal analysis and calorimetry techniques applied to the characterization of materials and fluids for energy
Open Access
Issue
Oil & Gas Science and Technology - Rev. IFP Energies nouvelles
Volume 73, 2018
Dossier: Thermal analysis and calorimetry techniques applied to the characterization of materials and fluids for energy
Article Number 64
Number of page(s) 15
DOI https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst/2018012
Published online 30 November 2018

© M.R. Mahi et al., published by IFP Energies nouvelles, 2018

Licence Creative Commons
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1 Introduction

Nowadays, fossil energies such as petroleum, natural gas and coal dominate approximately more than 80% of primary energy consumption estimated by sources [1]. This excessive reliance on fossil fuels in the world has serious reservations about their depletion and green house emission. Now, with increasing the demand for environmental concerns about global warming, the development of eco-friendly and renewable energy sources have been a most important topic in the last few years [2,3]. The energy-efficient processes for the sustainable production of fuels derived from biomass such as biodiesel fuel (BDF), bio-ethanol and liquid alkanes have also attracted attention over the year [4].

5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), obtained by dehydration of monosaccharides, is considered to be most promising important intermediate for the synthesis of a wide variety of chemicals and alternative fuels based on bio-refinery [5]. To upgrade furanic compounds toward bio-fuels, hydrogenation is the most versatile reaction. Among several furan-based biofuel candidates, which include 2,5-dimethylfuran (2,5-DMF), 2-methylfuran (2-MF), 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF) and ethyl levulinate (EL), 2,5-dimethylfuran is known as one of the potential transportation fuels because of its high energy density (30 kJ · cm−3) together octane number (RON = 119), these values are similar to the gasoline which also have high energy density (34ckJ · cm−3) together octane number (RON = 96). Moreover, DMF is nearly immiscible with water and thus easier to blend with gasoline than ethanol.

To explore the application of DMF as a fuel or as a gasoline additive, it is necessary to characterize its thermophysical properties including density, sound velocity, refractive indices, viscosity, surface tension and vapor–liquid equilibrium as a pure fluid as well as mixed with hydrocarbons or other gasoline additives. In the face of their importance, experimental and theoretical investigations concerning key properties are scarce and limited to narrow experimental conditions.

For the case of binary systems {2,5-dimethylfuran (2,5-DMF) + FA or MIBK or 1-butanol, or 2-butanol}, neither excess molar volumes (), nor isentropic compressibility (ks) data have been previously reported. Consequently, and as continuation of our systematic studies on thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of binary mixtures containing solvents derived from biomass, the present work is undertaken to measure new experimental data of densities, sound velocity, refractive indices of pure DMF and of the binary systems {2,5-dimethylfuran (2,5-DMF) + FA or MIBK or 1-butanol, or 2-butanol} over the entire composition range at (293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15) K and at pressure p = 0.1 MPa. Reliable density and speed of sound data for the measured systems are needed for optimized design of several industrial processes such as separation, storage, mixing processes, and transport. These data also used to develop accurate empirical equations, models and simulation programs. The results from these studies can provide valuable information about fluid at different temperature conditions including room temperatures to higher temperatures at 50 °C.

2 Experimental details

2.1 Chemicals

2,5-dimethylfuran (2,5-DMF), FA and 2-butanol were purchased from Sigma Aldrich, while 1-butanol was from Biochem and MIBK was from Fluka. The purity of these chemicals were declared to be more than 0.99 on mass fraction basis. The source and the purity of the utilized chemicals are shown in Table 1. As well the purity was checked by comparing the measured densities, speed of sound and refractive index, which are in good accord with literature values [665] and are presented in Table 2. All chemicals were kept in bottles to avoid contamination and evaporation during mixing.

Table 1

Molar mass, CAS number, suppliers and purities of chemicals used in this study.

Table 2

Comparison of experimental density, ρ, sound velocity, u, and refractive indices, nD, of the pure component with the corresponding literature values at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K and at pressure p = 0.1 MPa.

2.2 Apparatus and procedure

The binary mixtures were prepared by mass measurement using an OHAUS analytical mass balance with a precision of ±0.0001 g. The uncertainty in the mole fraction was ±0.0005. Density and speed of sound for pure components and their binary mixtures were measured using a digital vibrating-tube densimeter and sound velocity analyzer (Anton Paar DSA 5000M) with uncertainty of ±0.02 K in temperature. The speed of sound was measured using a propagation time technique with frequency of 3 MHz. The estimated uncertainty in density and speed of sound were ±0.003 g·cm−3 and ±1.2 m·s−1, respectively. The refractive indices of the pure liquids used in the present work were measured using an Abbe digital refractometer (Model Abbemat 300, Anton Paar), with uncertainty of ±0.02 K in temperature. The measured values of the refractive indices using the method and apparatus were estimated to be ±0.005 of their true values.

3 Results and discussion

3.1 Density

The values of density ρ were measured at (293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15) K, and at pressure p = 0.1 MPa for the binary systems {2,5-dimethylfuran (2,5-DMF) + FA or MIBK or 1-butanol, or 2-butanol} and are given in Table 3. The plots of density versus concentration at investigated temperatures are given in Figure S1 (a)–(d). From Figure S1 (a)–(d), it can be seen that the ρ values decreases with an increase in temperature, and increases with an increase in concentration for all investigated binary systems, except for the system containing FA whereas a decreasing value of ρ with an increase in concentration was observed.

Table 3

Densities, ρ, sound velocity, u, and isentropic compressibility, κs, for the binary systems {2,5-DMF (1)+FA (2), or MIBK (2), or 1-butanol (2), or 2-butanol (2)} at (293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15) K and at pressure p = 0.1 MPa.

3.2 Speed of sound

The measurement of speed of sound, u, has been successfully employed in understanding the nature of molecular interactions in pure liquids and their liquid mixtures [6668]. Speed of sound measurements are highly sensitive to molecular interactions and can be used to provide qualitative information about the physical nature and strength of molecular interaction in liquid mixtures [6668]. In this regards, the speed of sound data, were also measured in the same conditions for all binary systems and are also given in Table 3. The plots of speed of sound versus concentration, at investigated temperatures, are given in Figure S2 (a)–(d). From Figure S2 (a)–(d), it can be seen that the u values also decreases with an increase in temperature, and in general, decreases with an increase in concentration for all binary systems excluding the {2,5-dimethylfuran + MIBK) system, whereas an increasing values of u with an increase in concentration was observed. Figure S2 (a)–(d), representing the variation of u as a mole fraction of 2,5-dimethylfuran for the systems containing FA or MIBK or 1-butanol, or 2-butanol, shows that at a given temperature, the curve of u as a function of x1 has a maximum of x1 = 0.6773 for MIBK whereas a minimum of x1 = 0.9004 for FA, x1 = 0.7944 for 1-butanol and x1 = 0.6860 for 2-butanol. The minimum of x1 observed for the systems whereas u value decreases with an increase in concentration while maximum of x1 observed for the systems whereas an increasing value of u with increasing concentration was observed.

3.3 Excess molar volumes

The excess molar volumes,, were calculated from the density data of the mixture and the pure components using Equation (1): (1) where x1 and x2 are mole fractions; M1 and M2 denote molar masses; ρ1 and ρ2 are the densities; where 1 refers to 2,5-dimethylfuran and 2 refers to FA or 1-butanol or 2-butanol or MIBK, and ρ is the density of the mixtures. Table S1 represents the results of excess molar volume, , for the studied system and is also plotted in Figure S1 (a)–(d). The values are positive for the systems (2,5-dimethylfuran + 1-butanol, or 2-butanol) and negative for the systems (2,5-dimethylfuran + MIBK, or FA). The positive values can be explained by (i) mutual loss of dipolar association due to addition of the 1-butanol or 2-butanol and contributions due to difference in size and shape of the components in the mixtures, and (ii) dipole–dipole and dipole-induced dipole interaction between unlike molecules. The first factor contributes to expansion in volume and second factor contributes to decrease in volume, which will cause contraction in volume. The experimental results in this work suggested that the factors responsible for expansion in volume are dominant over the entire composition range in the mixtures (2,5-DMF + the 1-butanol or 2-butanol) systems whereas an inversion in sign for (2,5-DMF + MIBK or FA) systems suggested that factors responsible for decrease in volume are dominant over the composition range. As can been seen the results in Table S1, the values at x1 = 0.5938 for 2-butanol>1-butanol>MIBK>FA indicating that the interaction between 2,5-DMF with FA or MIBK or 1-butanol or 2-butanol as in order FA>MIBK>1-butanol>2-butanol. This observation based on fact that lower the values have stronger interaction and vice versa. From Figure 1 (a)–(d), shows that the values increase with the temperature for all systems except MIBK whereas decrease with temperature. The minimum and maximum values increase with an increase in temperature for all the systems except the system containing FA. The excess molar volume of an equimolar mixtures for studied systems at 293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K are −0.266, −0.292, −0.318, −0.344 for FA; −0.231, −0.229, −0.223, −0.222 for MIBK; 0.112, 0.150, 0.195, 0.245 for 1-butanol and 0.395, 0.472, 0.549, 0.625 for 2-butanol were observed.

thumbnail Fig. 1

Plot of excess molar volumes, , for the binary mixtures: (a) {2,5-DMF (1)+FA (2)}; (b) {2,5-DMF (1)+MIBK (2)}; (c) {2,5-DMF (1)+1-butanol (2)} and (d) {2,5-DMF (1)+2-butanol (2)} as function of the composition expressed in the mole fraction at 293.15 K (♦); 303.15 K (■); 313.15 K (▲) and 323.15 K (●). The dotted lines were generated using Redlich-Kister polynomial curve-fitting.

3.4 Isentropic compressibility, and deviation in isentropic compressibility

The Newton–Laplace equation was used to calculate the isentropic compressibility, κs, (2) The deviations in isentropic compressibility, Δκs, were calculated using the equation given below: (3)where κs,i and xi are the isentropic compressibility and mole fractions of the pure component i, respectively. The results of isentropic compressibility, κs, for studied systems at 293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K are given in Table 3 and are also plotted in Figure S3 (a)–(d). The isentropic compressibility, κs, value increases with an increase in temperature at a fixed composition for all binary systems due to an increase in thermal agitation, making the solution more compressible [69]. The κs value increases with an increase in temperature and increases with an increase in the concentration of 2,5-DMF at a fixed temperature for the system of 2,5-DMF with FA, 1-butanol and 2-butanol except for the 1-butanol, 2-butanol systems whereas start decreasing from x1 = 0.5099, x1= 0.1972 upwards respectively, while for the MIBK solution of 2,5-DMF, decreases with concentration.

It is well known that the addition of 2,5-DMF molecules to self-associated hydrogen bonded FA,1-butanol and 2-butanol will induce breaking of clusters of these molecules thereby releasing so many dipoles, which interact with dipoles of 2,5-DMF. This causes an increase in free space, decrease in speed of sound and positive deviation in isentropic compressibility [70]. The calculated Δκs values for studied system at (293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15) K are also given in Table S1 and are graphically presented in Figure 2 (a)–(d). It is observed from Figure 2 (a)–(d), the values of Δκs are negative for (2,5-DMF + MIBK) binary system, and both positive and negative for the systems (2,5-DMF + FA). The positive values of Δκs are also observed for (2,5-DMF + 1-butanol or 2-butanol) systems. The negative values of deviations in isentropic compressibility, Δκs, indicate that there is strong unlike dipole–dipole interaction in the mixtures which compensates greater to the positive contribution to Δκs arising from the mutual rupturing of the dipolar aggregates in components 1 and 2 by each other [71]. The positive values of Δκs may be due to rupture of hydrogen bonded associates of 1-butanol or 2-butanol dominated over hydrogen bonding between unlike molecules.

thumbnail Fig. 2

Plot of deviation in isentropic compressibility,Δκs, for the binary mixtures: (a) {2,5-DMF (1)+FA (2)}; (b) {2,5-DMF (1)+MIBK (2)}; (c) {2,5-DMF (1)+1-butanol (2)} and (d) {2,5-DMF (1)+2-butanol (2)} as function of the composition expressed in the mole fraction at 293.15 K (♦); 303.15 K (■); 313.15 K (▲) and 323.15 K (●). The dotted lines were generated using Redlich-Kister polynomial curve-fitting.

3.5 Correlation of derived properties

Experimental excess/deviation properties of the {2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF)+FA or 1-butanol or 2-butanol, or MIBK} were correlated by Redlich–Kister Equation (4): (4) where X is excess molar volumes, and deviation in isentropic compressibility, Δκs. The values of the fitting parameters Ai have been evaluated using a least-square method. These results are summarized in Table 4, together with the corresponding standard deviations, σ, which was determined using Equation (5): (5)where N is the number of experimental points and k is the number of coefficients used in the Redlich-Kister equation. The values of and Δκs as well as the plots of the Redlich-Kister model are displayed in Figures 1 (a)–(d) and 2 (a)–(d), respectively. The standard deviations, between the experimental data and those calculated using Redlich–Kister equation are also given in Table 4, show very small values at the investigated temperatures for all the systems.

Table 4

Coefficients Ai, and standard deviations obtained for the binary systems studied in this work at different temperatures and at pressure p = 0.1 MPa for the Redlich–Kister equation.

4 Conclusion

In this work, density and speed of sound of {2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) + FA or 1-butanol or 2-butanol, or MIBK} systems were measured over the temperature range of 293.15–323.15 K and at atmospheric pressure. The experimental values were used to calculate the excess functions, which were then correlated using a Redlich-Kister-type polynomial equation. The excess molar volumes were negative for {2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF)+F) or MIBK} systems and positive for {2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF)+1-butanol or 2-butanol} systems; deviations in isentropic were negative for (2,5-DMF+MIBK) binary system, and both positive and negative for the system (2,5-DMF+FA). The positive values of Δκs are also observed for (2,5-DMF+1-butanol or 2-butanol) systems.

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Supplementary Material

Download PDF file.

Supplementary figures and tables.

All Tables

Table 1

Molar mass, CAS number, suppliers and purities of chemicals used in this study.

Table 2

Comparison of experimental density, ρ, sound velocity, u, and refractive indices, nD, of the pure component with the corresponding literature values at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K and at pressure p = 0.1 MPa.

Table 3

Densities, ρ, sound velocity, u, and isentropic compressibility, κs, for the binary systems {2,5-DMF (1)+FA (2), or MIBK (2), or 1-butanol (2), or 2-butanol (2)} at (293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15) K and at pressure p = 0.1 MPa.

Table 4

Coefficients Ai, and standard deviations obtained for the binary systems studied in this work at different temperatures and at pressure p = 0.1 MPa for the Redlich–Kister equation.

All Figures

thumbnail Fig. 1

Plot of excess molar volumes, , for the binary mixtures: (a) {2,5-DMF (1)+FA (2)}; (b) {2,5-DMF (1)+MIBK (2)}; (c) {2,5-DMF (1)+1-butanol (2)} and (d) {2,5-DMF (1)+2-butanol (2)} as function of the composition expressed in the mole fraction at 293.15 K (♦); 303.15 K (■); 313.15 K (▲) and 323.15 K (●). The dotted lines were generated using Redlich-Kister polynomial curve-fitting.

In the text
thumbnail Fig. 2

Plot of deviation in isentropic compressibility,Δκs, for the binary mixtures: (a) {2,5-DMF (1)+FA (2)}; (b) {2,5-DMF (1)+MIBK (2)}; (c) {2,5-DMF (1)+1-butanol (2)} and (d) {2,5-DMF (1)+2-butanol (2)} as function of the composition expressed in the mole fraction at 293.15 K (♦); 303.15 K (■); 313.15 K (▲) and 323.15 K (●). The dotted lines were generated using Redlich-Kister polynomial curve-fitting.

In the text

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