Role of divalent ions, temperature, and crude oil during water injection into dolomitic carbonate oil reservoirs
School of Petroleum Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
2 Centre for Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO2 Solutions, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh, UK
3 School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
Accepted: 14 January 2019
Although wettability alteration has been shown to be the main control mechanism of Low Salinity and Smart Water (LS-SmW) injection, our understanding of the phenomena resulting in wettability changes still remains incomplete. In this study, more attention is given to direct measurement of wettability through contact angle measurement at ambient and elevated temperatures (28 °C and 90 °C) during LS-SmW injection to identify trends in wettability alteration. Zeta potential measurement is utilized as an indirect technique for wettability assessment in rock/brine and oil/brine interfaces in order to validate the contact angle measurements. The results presented here bring a new understanding to the effect of temperature and different ions on the wettability state of dolomite particles during an enhanced oil recovery process.
Our observations show that increasing temperature from 28 °C to 90 °C reduces the contact angle of oil droplets from 140 to 41 degrees when Seawater (SW) is injected. Besides, changing crude oil from crude-A (low asphaltene content) to crude-B (high asphaltene content) contributes to more negative surface charges at the oil/brine interface. The results suggest that the sulphate ion (SO42-) is the most effective ion for altering dolomite surface properties, leading to less oil wetness. Our study also shows that wettability alteration at ambient and elevated temperatures during LS-SmW injection can be explained by Electrical Double Layer (EDL) theory.
© M. Fattahi Mehraban et al., published by IFP Energies nouvelles, 2019
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.