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Table 5

History of the Cenozoic tectonic evolution.

Time period Sub-periods Tectonic regime Principle stress
Maximum compressive stress axis (σ1) Intermediate compressive stress axis (σ2) Minimum compressive stress axis (σ3)
Paleocene to middle Eocene (S1) Vertical NNE–SSW WNW–ESE
Middle–late Eocene to early Miocene (S2) Middle Eocene to late Eocene (S2.1) Vertical ENE–WSW NNW–SSE
Oligocene (S2.2) Strike-slip Sub-E–W Vertical Sub-N–S
Early Miocene (S2.3) Strike-slip NE–SW Vertical NW–SE
Middle Miocene–Quaternary (S3) Middle Miocene to late Miocene (S3.1) Shallow plunge angle NNW–SSE Vertical ENE–WSW
Pliocene to early Pleistocene (S3.2) Sub-N–S direction Vertical sub-E–W
Middle–late Pleistocene to Holocene (S3.3) NNW–SSE (low plunge angle) Sub-vertical ENE–WSW

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