Open Access

Table 3

Summary of researches performed in salt cavern stability in last decades.

Author(s) Year Subject or/and results
Albrecht et al. 1980 Stability of cavern including stored material was investigated.
Dreyer 1982 Stability of cavern was investigated and some possible mechanisms incorporated in hydraulic fracturing were discussed.
Hoffman and Ehgartner 1993 A 3D finite element model to investigate the effects of a number of caverns on storage losses, surface subsidence, and cavern integrity have been developed.
Barron 1994 Two of USA’s strategic caverns based on their location, depth, shape, spacing, internal and operation pressure were investigated.
Chan et al. 1996 An investigation into generation and growth crack in rock salt was done.
Staudtmeister and Rokahr 1997 Cavern design’s processes were divided in four steps and a design concepts were approached.
Adams 1997 A guidelines for the gas pressure inside the cavern using a 2D finite element model has been developed. The minimum and maximum gas pressure and the proper distance between the adjacent caverns were investigated.
De Vries et al. 2002 A continuum damage criteria to determine minimum operational pressure for caverns located in salt beds was developed.
Heusermann et al. 2003 Methodology of cavern design by using numerical methods was discussed.
Bruno et al. 2005 Geo-mechanical analyses to determine operational pressure range for cavern located in salt beds in USA was investigated.
De Vries et al. 2005 A finite element model to evaluate the effects of the cavern design parameters (roof thickness, depth, and aspect ratio) on the minimum allowable gas pressure of the cavern has been developed.
Sobolik and Ehgartner 2006 Safety factor, volume loss and subsidence resulting from the cylindrical salt caverns, also caverns with wide part at above, middle and bottom were investigated.
Han et al. 2007 A finite difference model in FLAC3D for a single-bedded salt cavern has been developed.
Ardeshiri & Yazani 2008 The influence of faults on the seismic behavior of the underground caverns using the FLAC2D have been studied. A dynamic non-linear analysis was performed under an earthquake ground motion at the bottom of the model.
Hilbert & Exponent 2008 The casing failures associated with the caverns in bedded salt domes using a finite element model have been investigated.
Wang et al. 2009 Stability of cavern’s roof was investigated.
Wang et al. 2011 Maximum displacement, plastic deformation and optimized width of the pillars in cylindrical and pear-shaped caverns were investigated.
Ma et al. 2012 The convergence of salt caverns in an ultra-deep formation at high temperatures using the creep tests have been investigated.
Nazary Moghadam et al. 2013 A Lagrangian finite element formulation of the salt cavern with an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for the salt to evaluate the dilatancy and creep of the cavern in short terms and long terms have been developed.
Wang et al. 2013 Used 3D geomechanical simulation to validate the analytical model of underground salt cavern shape optimizing, showing that the newly proposed salt cavern could achieve greater effective volume and ensure better stability during a long-term creep.
Djizanne et al. 2014 The stability of the overhanging blocks under the debrining and speedy gas production was studied in gas storage salt cavern including irregular shape using a 2D numerical model.
Wang et al. 2015 The stresses, deformation and safety factors of pillar located between two adjacent caverns using a 3D geomechanical model were studied.
Liang et al. 2016 Applying a systematic and comprehensive investigations on the factors influencing stability and on the evaluation criteria, the design parameters are optimized to ensure the safe and stable long-term operation of salt cavern gas storages.
Wang et al. 2016 The distance, in which the safety of caverns is met, is determined using Lab measurement and 3D numerical modeling.
Zhang et al. 2017 A 3D-geomechanical simulation model considering operating conditions is built to evaluate the stability and availability of the SPR salt caverns in China.
He et al. 2018 A novel model for fatigue life prediction is proposed on the basis of energy dissipation and the result of model is validated by tests results.
Labaune et al. 2018 A new approach for salt cavern design based on the use of the onset of dilatancy as a design threshold is applied.

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