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Table 2

Some of instability-induced factors (Yang et al., 2013).

Factor Results Example
Creep closure Volume loss, introducing lateral pressure on casing Eminence (USA), Tersanne (France) 40% and 30% of total volume was closed respectively
Dissolution Irregular shape of cavern, not enough spaces for storing, solution of pillar located between caverns Subsidence and crater induced at surface in Bayou Choctaw
Anomaly zones (high and low solubility zones and gaseous zones) Introducing crack in roof and wall, volume loss resulting from compaction of insoluble sediments Some space of Kiel was occupied resulting from insoluble zones
Week cementation at cavern’s neck Pipes corrosion, crack generation resulting in production leakage Gas leakage and accumulation in layers in 22 years cause explosion and fire at Mount Belvieu
Cavern located at shallow depth Nearness to the groundwater cause the roof of cavern to be leached NGL-Kansas-USA
Injection and withdrawn rate Tensile stress resulting in thermal changes during injection and withdrawn
Thin cap rock Development the crack in cap rock resulting in leaking Failure in cap rock of Napoleonville, Louisiana, USA
Thin pillar Failure in pillars located between caverns Failure in pillar between two cavern at Mineola’s facility in 1995, Texas, USA
Human errors Low feasibility study, overfilling Cavern damage resulting from overfilling, Petal and Brenham, USA
Uncertainty in exploration, over-pressuring

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