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The captured images of the immiscible flow scenario at different time intervals. The left, middle, and right columns show the experiment images, the segmented images of the experiment, and numerical simulation results, respectively. (a) 35 s, (b) 70 s, (c) 100 s, (d) 120 s, and (e) 133 s (i.e., breakthrough time). The colored areas (pink and blue) represent the injected fluid; the white areas are pores, and the black areas representing solid grains.