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Table 2

Operating parameters and crude oil property parameters of the insulated crude oil pipeline in section.

Parameters Value Parameters Value
R (mm) 355.6 λ steel (W [m °C])−1 54
R 1 (mm) 361.9 ρ oil (kg m−3) 850
R 2 (mm) 411.9 T 0 in winter (°C) 40.3
L (km) 57.2 T 0 in summer (°C) 40.2
Q m (t a−1) 350 × 104 T A in winter (°C) 3
λ ins (W [m °C])−1 0.047 T A in summer (°C) 15
λ 0 (W [m °C])−1 0.14 WAT (°C) 44.38
λ w (W [m °C])−1 0.25

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