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Table 2.

Key areas of LTO production economics enchancement, 2012–2017 (Source: Authors’ research based on EIA, 2016b; DOE, 2015)

Economic efficiency enhancement areas
Cost reduction Average well productivity increase
Economic efficiency enhancement areas Drilling Rig skidding Longer laterals
Wellhead operations improvement Improved geosteering
Multiple use of drilling rigs Well grid optimisation
Exploitation Fracking speed increase Superfracks
Proppant cost reduction Optimisation of stages and positioning of fracturing
Hybrid fracking liquids

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